Physiology is divided into a general, private, or special, comparative, evolutionary and human physiology.
General physiology studies the basic processes of life common to all living beings, the indigenous, the qualitative differences between the living and the nonliving, the general laws of the changes of body functions in a variety of external environment,
Private or special physiology studies the particular functions of the body, organs and tissues of certain groups of animals such as farm animals, as well as the function of individual organs and systems.
Comparative physiology studies the ontogenesis of phylogenetic and functions in different groups of living organisms, identifying their general and specific features.
Evolutionary physiology studies the evolution of the functions, or the history of the formation of individual functions and their mutual relations. It also explores the functional evolution or development of the theory of evolution based on the physiological, not only morphological characters, t. E., Discloses the principles of evolution of living organisms on the material of historical change their functions.
Especially great theoretical and practical importance is the development of human physiology, which is divided into the physiology of labor, physical exercise and sports, food, aviation, space, age, and others.
The structure of the body and its functions are interrelated and are the result of his phylogenetic and ontogenetic development. Since the implementation of the function changes the metabolism, that can change the structure of the body, the unity function and the function is a master form. Morphological and physiological processes are mutually dependent on each other. Therefore, the physiology is closely related to the anatomy – the science of the structure of the body of humans and animals and the laws of development of its structure, with histology – the science of optical and electron microscopic structure of body tissues and cytology – the study of the structure and functioning of the cell. Some sections of the physiology of natural science are the foundation of the social sciences.
The physiology of the sense organs and the nervous system has a direct relationship with philosophy, psychology and pedagogy.