The volume of human plasma is 55-60% of the total blood volume. For the separation of formed elements from plasma used blood sedimentation or centrifugation after the preliminary addition to her agent, retarding its clotting. Red blood cells are heavier settle while on the bottom of the tube, forming a layer of red, and above them is a thin layer of colorless or whitish lighter leukocytes and platelets (thrombocytes), and over the formed elements is a clear, colorless or slightly yellowish plasma layer.
In human blood plasma contains 90-91% water and 9-10% solids, which include proteins and salts. Proteins comprise from 6,6-8,2% of adults plasma, or about 3/4 of its dry residue. It contains 4-4.5% albumin, globulin 2.8-3.1% and 0.1-0.4% fibrinogen.
The blood plasma of a horse contains 2.7% and 4.6% albumin globulin, a bull – 3.3 and 4.1%, pig – 4.4 and 3.9%. The proteinaceous factor or the ratio of albumin to globulin (globulin amount by equating unit) in humans ranges from 1: 1.5 to 1: 2.3.
Total protein in human blood increases in the winter and in the summer is reduced.
The number of plasma proteins in the fall is less than the spring, depending on the nature of power.
In adults the total amount of plasma proteins decreases with age, regardless of diet. The relative content falls albumins and globulins increases. In women, the amount of globulin slightly more than men.
Globulins provide the protective properties of the blood. Pertaining to globulins, fibrinogen has high biological significance, since it participates in blood coagulation. It is formed and the liver.
In plasma there are metabolic intermediates which can be isolated from the filtrate after precipitation of proteins. These include urea, uric acid, amino acids, creatinine, ammonia, and others.
Nitrogen contained in these materials, called residual or nonproteinaceous nitrogen. Its amount in the adult is 20-40 mg%, or 20-40 mg per 100 cm3 of blood.
In the blood plasma are also glucose, lactic acid, fat, fatty acids and fat-like substances. Fasting human plasma contains 0.1-0.12% (100-120 mg%) and glucose of about 0.5-1% of fats and fat-like substances. The maximum amount of cholesterol in healthy people in the winter and fall (200-250 mg%), minimum – in the spring and summer (170-180 mg%).
Total cholesterol naturally rises to about 70 years and then declines.
Upon receiving the write amount of glucose in human plasma can be increased to 0.2%, m. E. There alimentary (food) hyperglycemia. Reduction of plasma glucose following called hypoglycemia. Increasing the amount of glucose in excess of 0.2%, and reduced below 0.05% causes severe abnormalities in the body and leads to death.
At rest the amount of lactic acid in the blood equals 10-30 mg%. With intensive physical work, it increases several times, and also increased the content of phosphoric acid and its metabolic products of the compounds with the proteins and carbohydrates.
In the blood, there are different enzymes. Some are only in plasma, others – formed elements. The plasma contained amylase break down carbohydrates, lipase, breaks down fats and oxidase and peroxidase involved in redox processes.
Basic electrolytes plasma (average in milligram percent): Na – 280 – 350 A – 18 – 20, Ca – 9 – 11, Mg – 1 – 3, Cl – 320 – 360, HCO3 – 160, SO4 – 22 , HPO4 – 10.
Furthermore, human plasma contains: iodine – 0,002-0,013 mg%. Bromine – 0.5-1.5 mg%. In erythrocytes, there are iron (in conjunction with proteins) – 50-60 mg%.
Spectral analysis of the current blood revealed that there occur oxidation, the breakdown of carbohydrates without oxygen, cleavage of compounds containing phosphorus, ammonia cleavage of protein compounds.
When introduced into the bloodstream of alien proteins in the body and shows the cleaving these proteins protective protein enzymes – proteases that have specificity. They cleave exactly the protein that is injected into the body.
When removing fibrinogen from plasma, which is converted to fibrin during coagulation, serum was prepared. Whole blood, devoid of fibrinogen, called defibrinated. It consists of formed elements and serum.
In coelenterates and lower worms delivery of nutrients to the cells of the body and removal of residual metabolic products made watery liquid – gidrolimfoy. In some invertebrates it contains proteins that carry oxygen. In arthropods and mollusks in unclosed containers circulating hemolymph, which contains more protein and inorganic substances than gidrolimfe. The hemolymph diluted blood pigments (chromoproteids) performing respiratory function, and it performs the function of both blood and lymph.
Ion coefficient and its significance
The content of cations and anions in the plasma, and the preservation of a certain ratio between them (ion ratio) is important for the normal functioning of all organs and tissues, primarily for safety and the normal functioning of blood cells. Of particular importance is the ratio of sodium, potassium and calcium.