The ancient Sumerians – it is the peoples who inhabited the territory of southern Mesopotamia (the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers), at the dawn of the historical period. Sumerian civilization is one of the most ancient on the planet.
The culture of the ancient Sumerians is striking in its versatility – it’s original art, and religious beliefs and scientific discoveries that affect the world for its accuracy.
Writing ancient Sumerians represented the elimination of written characters using reed sticks on a plate made of raw clay, from here it got its name – cuneiform.
Cuneiform very quickly spread to the surrounding countries, and in fact became the main type of writing the entire Middle East, up to the beginning of a new era. The Sumerian writing was a certain set of characters by which designated certain objects or activities.
The architecture of the ancient Sumerians represented the religious and secular buildings palaces, material for the building of which was clay and sand, as in Mesopotamia was a shortage of stone and wood.
Although not very durable materials, structure of the Sumerians had a high strength and a few of them survived. Religious buildings of the ancient Sumerians had a form of stepped pyramids. Typically, the Sumerians built their stained black paint.
The important role played in the Sumerian society and religious beliefs. Pantheon Sumerian gods consisted of 50 main deities, which, according to their beliefs, deciding the fate of all mankind.
Like the Greek mythology, the gods of the ancient Sumerians were responsible for different aspects of life and natural phenomena. So the most revered gods were the sky god An, the goddess of the Earth – Ninhursag the god of air – Enlil.
According to Sumerian mythology, man was created bogom- supreme king, who mixed the clay with his blood, blinded from the mixture stick figure man and breathed life into it. Therefore, the ancient Sumerians believed in a close relationship with God, and regarded themselves as representatives of the gods on earth.
Art Sumerian people of modern man may seem very mysterious and not entirely clear. The figures are usually depicted scenes, people, animals, different events – but all objects were depicted in different time and material spaces. Each story is a system of abstract concepts that were based on the beliefs of the Sumerians.
The Sumerian culture shakes the modern world as their achievements in the field of astrology. The Sumerians first learned to observe the movement of the sun and moon and opened twelve constellations that make up the modern Zodiac. Sumerian priests learned to calculate the days of lunar eclipses, which is not always possible, even modern scientists using the latest astronomical techniques.
The ancient Sumerians were also created the first organized in churches, schools for children. The schools taught literature and religious foundations. Children who showed himself diligent students after graduation have the opportunity to become priests and secure a further comfortable life.
We all know that the Sumerians were the creators of the first wheel. But they did it not to simplify workflow as well as a toy for children. And just in time to see its functionality, we began to apply it to the chores.
The ancient Sumerians made a huge contribution to world culture. They have contributed as much as possible the development of scientific – technical progress of mankind.