Among the ancient city of Babylon, which were disbursed Semites, the power and sophistication of Babylon eventually eclipsed all the other states of Mesopotamia. That is why this area and the nearby town became known as Babylonia.
Period of prosperity and development of ancient Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi called. The beginning of his reign from the 17th century BC, and as soon as he ascended the throne of Hammurabi started a policy of conquest.
His desire was to create a single Babylonian empire, and he succeeded. This was due to the growing cultural and political significance of the Babylonian Empire at the time. After the death of the king rule over Babylon was owned by the Kassites, who managed to capture the state.
Ancient Babylon refers to slave states in which the Company is primarily divided into free and slave. Slaves represented the lowest stratum of the population, and refers to things, is owned by the owner.
The slaves of ancient Babylon was divided into privately owned, and the king’s temple. It was only a few exceptions to the rights of slaves, for example, the children of slave owners believe its free.
In turn, the free citizens of ancient Babylon were divided into full and unequal. The first group of citizens could own land and carry duties in favor of the state.
And unequal citizens called “mushkenu” and their position in society of ancient Babylon is still ambiguous. They differ from full citizens based on the “Code of Hammurabi”, by which they were carrying a different type of punishment and guilt.
Most historians distinguish what state system of ancient Babylon is a lot like structure of ancient Egypt. Same way, it was the eastern despotism, which was headed by the king.
All kinds of power: legislative, religious, judicial and executive belonged solely to him. The structure of the political system consists of three main departments, such as financial, military and related to public works. The government also stood Vizier, the head of finance, military commander, kravchy and butler.
A state bodies is a system of local and central government. Local governors treated the king who ruled the major cities. They also started a community government bodies and they are able to exercise partly judicial and administrative authorities on the ground.
During the reign of Hammurabi famous and remarkable fact that when it was created collections of laws, in which the king himself has invested a lot of energy and their own knowledge. “Hammurabi” were engraved on the black basalt columns, the text of the laws was under the image of the king.
The “Code of Hammurabi” there are three main parts. Introduction is dedicated to information about what the gods gave the king the power of good deeds and Hammurabi. The following are the basic laws, and the last part is devoted to detailed conclusions.
The basis for these numerous laws was the old common law, new legislation designed Hammurabi and Sumerian statute books. There are what in “Hammurabi” no religious and moralistic elements.
This indicates that the king of ancient Babylon really sought to consolidate his vision of government for the state, which was a social system.